TRAUMATIC AND TOXIC RETINOPATHIES
Valsalva retinopathy is characterized by hemorrhage typically located under the internal layer membrane in or near the macular area secondary to a Valsalva maneuver. The sudden increase in intrathoracic pressure that follows the Valsalva maneuver causes a sudden rise in intraocular venous pressure leading to a spontaneously rupture of retinal capillaries. Vitreous hemorrhage and subretinal hemorrhage may be present.
The symptoms range from complains of floating spots with decreased vision to complete loss of central vision. Unilateral manifestations are most common but the findings may be bilateral.
The prognosis for Valsalva retinopathy is generally good and the preretinal hemorrhages usually resolve by themselves in a few weeks to a few months. Part of the blood turns yellow after several...