TRAUMATIC AND TOXIC RETINOPATHIES
Terson´s syndrome is defined by the occurrence of intraocular hemorrhage secondary to subarachnoid (the most common cause) or subdural hemorrhage. There are several hypotheses to explain this phenomenon. Generally it is accepted that the presence of fluid in the intracranial extravascular compartment, causes a rise of intracranial pressure that consequently leads to an increase of the intraluminal pressure in the venous channels draining the globe. This in turn leads to rupture of the intraocular veins with subsequent hemorrhage.
Hemorrhage can be subretinal, intraretinal, preretinal (subhyaloid) or intravitreal. One particular entity, which can result from the hemorrhage, is a hemorrhagic macular cyst (HMC). HMC is present in up to 40% of patients with Terson syndrome. Two types of HMC have been described....