AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major public health problem. It is the leading cause of severe central visual acuity loss in developed countries in people over 50 years of age.
Initial stages of AMD are characterized by drusen, focal hyperpigmentation or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration. Most patients are asymptomatic or complain of mild decrease in visual acuity and metamorphopsias.
Two main forms of advanced AMD have been described: dry-AMD, representing 85-90% of patients; neovascular (wet) AMD represents 10-15% of cases.
Wet AMD is characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV develops when a bud of neovascular tissue, arising from the choriocapillaris, grows through a break in Bruch’s membrane and reaches the sub-RPE space. Usually the new...