Idiopathic Macular Hole
A macular hole is a full-thickness defect of retinal tissue involving the anatomic fovea of the eye.
There are various causes of macular hole: it can be idiopathic or due to trauma, accidental foveal burns with laser, long-standing cystoid macular edema and myopia.
The underlying pathophysiology for the formation of these holes is not well understood, although epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous traction and hydraulic forces may play a role in a few cases. The anteroposterior and “tangential” vitreous traction on the fovea may be a primary cause off macular holes in the majority of cases.
- Central serous retinopathy
- Cystoid macular edema
- Epiretinal membrane with pseudo-hole