TRAUMATIC AND TOXIC RETINOPATHIES
Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy
One of the most important of the retinotoxic diseases is caused by the prolonged use of chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) leading to degeneration of RPE and neurosensorial retina. These drugs are used to treat systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and other connectivitis. Hydroxychloroquine use has markedly increased because it has become a first-line drug for some connectivitis.
High dose and long duration of use are the most significant risks. Other major factors are concomitant renal disease, or use of tamoxifen. Ophthalmologic screening is important during treatment, for early detection, while sub-clinical changes may be reversible.
In patients currently or previously medicated with HCQ, 10-2 automated threshold visual fields, fundus autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical...